HOME CARE IN TOLEDO OHIO, HOME CARE TOLEDO, TOLEDO OHIO HOMECARE, CAREGIVER TOLEDO OHIO, MICHIGAN, HOSPICE TOLEDO OHIO, RESPITE TOLEDO OHIO, caregiver registry in Toledo Ohio, caregiver needed in Toledo OH, home hospice care listings in Toledo Ohiof, senior parks in Toledo OH, Reynolds Corner, Franklin Park, Glendale, Southwyck, Michigan, Temperance, Monroe

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HOME CARE TOLEDO OHIO, IN HOME CARE, HOSPICE, RESPITE
CAREGIVER, HOME CARE, SENIOR LIVING, RESPITE CARE, ELDER CARE, HOSPICE CARE
Assisted Living, In home Care, Respite Toledo Ohio, Hospice Toledo Ohio, Elder Care, Senior Care, Home Health Support, Home Hospice, Respite Care Support, Care Giver, Family Home Care Support, Michigan, Monroe

"We Care Like Family"
(419) 720-9595
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Email:
Begin@HomeCareToledoOH.com
Home Care Respite Care Hospice Care Elder Care Contact US SPECIALS
Services:  In Home Care • Respite Care • Hospice Care • Elder Care • Elder Companionship • Home Hospice • Family Support • Assisted Living
 

CONTACT US:

HOMECARE
TOLEDO OH
.com



Greg and Sue Bixler
We would Love to Help!


Acessible Health Care
3454 Oak Alley Court, Suite 402
Toledo, OH 43606


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Hours of Business: 24/7 Service

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(419) 720-9595

EMAIL:
Begin@HomeCareToledoOH.COM

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About Us:

 
We care like family. We believe that life is a precious gift and we strive to give a "quality of life" which is achieved through quality care. Our mission is to provide the best care ever, "Just like Family". We are dedicated to giving the best care with the kindest and most compassionate services such as In Home Care, Respite Care and Hospice Care throughout all of TOLEDO OHIO. You'll receive great in home care for your loved one by trained, insured, bonded and compassionate caregivers. In an emergency, we can provide care for your loved one.
 

Geography We Cover:

 

Berkey OH, 43504
Beverly
Birmingham,
Blissfield MI, 49228
Bowling Green, 43402, 43403
Colton OH, 43510
Curtice,
Dunbridge OH, 43414
Erie MI, 48133
Five Points
Franklin Park,
Genoa OH, 43430
Grand Rapids OH, 43522
Glendale, 45246
Harbor View OH, 43434
Haskins OH, 43525
Holland OH, 43528
La Salle MI, 48145
Lambertville MI, 48144
Lemoyne OH, 43441
Luckey OH, 43443
Luna Pier MI, 48157
Maumee OH, 43537
Metamora OH, 43540
Millbury OH, 43447
Monclova OH, 43542
Neapolis OH, 43547
Northriver,
North Towne,
Northwood OH, 43619
Old West End,
Old Towne,
Onyx,
Oregon OH, 43616
Ottawa Lake MI, 49267
Ottowa Hills
Palmyra MI, 49268
Perrysburg OH, 43551, 43552
Pertersburg MI, 49270
Point Place
Reynolds Corner
Riga MI, 49276
River East,
Rossford OH, 43460
Roosevelt
Scott park
Samaria MI, 48177
Stony Ridge OH, 43463
Swanton OH, 43558
Sylvania OH, 43560
Temperance MI, 48182
Toledo OH, 43601 43603 43604 43605 43606 43607 43608 43609 43610 43611 43612 43613 43614 43615 43617 43620 43623 43635 43652 43654 43656 43657 43659 43660 43661 43666 43667 43681 43682 43697 43699

West Toledo,
South Toledo,
East Toledo
North Toledo

Tontogany OH, 43565
Uptown,
Walbridge OH, 43465
Waterville OH, 43566
Westgate
Whitehouse OH, 43571
Whitmer
Lucas County, 43434,43504,43528,43537, 43542 ,43547,43560 ,43566 ,43571,43601,43603,43604,43605,43606, 43607, 43608 ,43609,43610, 43611,43612, 43613, 43614 , 43615,43616, 43617,43620, 43623, 43635, 43652, 43656, 43657, 43659, 43660, 43661, 43666, 43667, 43681, 43682, 43697, 43699
Rolling Green County, 45301 ,45305, 45307, 45314, 45316, 45324, 45335, 45370, 45384, 45385, 45387, 45431, 45432, 45433, 45434, 45435
Wood County, 43402,43403, 43406, 43413, 43414,43437, 43441,43443, 43447, 43450, 43451, 43457, 43460 ,43462, 43463 ,43465, 43466, 43467, 43511, 43522, 43525, 43529, 43541, 43551, 43552, 43565, 43569, 43619, 43654 , 44817, 45872,
Ottowa County,
43408, 43412, 43416, 43430, 43432, 43433, 43436, 43439, 43440, 43445, 43446 , 43449, 43452 , 43456, 43458, 43468,
Monroe County, 48161, 48162

Things We Do Really Well:
  1. caregiver
  2.  homecare
  3.  senior living
  4.  senior citizens
  5. respite
  6. senior services
  7.  home health aide 
  8.  respite care
  9. hospices
  10.  eldercare
  1. home hospice
  2. elderly services
  3.  elderly help
  4. hospice services
  5.  hospice ca
  6.  elderly assistance
  7.  elderly treatment
  8.  in home care elderly
  9.  elderly caregiver
  10.  elderly needs
 

 

HOME CARE TOLEDO OHIO
CAREGIVER, HOSPICE, RESPITE


FREE IN HOME CARE ANALYSIS
FREE CUSTOMIZED CARE PLAN


We are a home care company dedicated to
providing care "Just like Family"

We believe that this is more than just caring, we are also actively involved in finding other related ways to improve the lives of our seniors.

Care For Life Companion Services provides professional caregiver services. We are committed to giving you the highest quality of companion care. We take every precautions to make sure that your caregiver is well-trained and the best person to help you with your daily needs.

* Customized care plan for each client
* Parkinson's Disease Care
* Multiple Sclerosis
* Disabled Adults / Children
* Live-in Care / Hourly Care / Overnight Care

* Alzheimer's Disease
* Dementia
* Medication management
* Personal care and grooming
* Transportation to doctor's appointments
* Exercise and mobility assistance
* Respite and hospice relief
* Meal preparation
* Laundry and light housekeeping
* Errands
* Shopping
* 24/7 service with immediate care provided


Even if it's just for a need for a companion or daily friendly conversation, we are here to help you. We carry workers comp for all employees, pay all federal and state taxes. All employees are fingerprinted and their criminal records are background checked with the FBI and DOJ.

In order for our caregivers to work for Accessible Home Health Care© we require them to pass a “28 Point Background Investigation”, the strictest and most stringent in the home health care industry. The background investigation verifies from the individual’s name to some of the background points below:

- Criminal Check
- Education
- Professional Certification
- Specialized Training
- Employment References
- Professional and Personal References
- Ability To Communicate
- 2 Years Minimum Verifiable Experience in Health Care Field
- Ability To Communicate: in English
- Clean Driving Record
- TB Tested Negative
- Legal to Work in US

Our in-depth background check is performed to ensure our staff’s credentials and their reputation in caring for your family member or loved one. We assure you that our caregivers will treat your senior loved one and family with the loving care they deserve.

We handle all the Long Term Care Insurance paperwork!

Call Us Today (419) 720-9595

REVIEWS - TESTIMONIALS
 

Read what our clients are saying...

EXTREMELY HIGHLY RECOMMEND!
“l have had the pleasure meeting Greg Bixler of Accessible Home Health Care this past year. My family was fortunate to have Greg and his outstanding staff of caretakers provide twenty‘four hour care that allowed my father to remain in his home during this time. Greg and his caretakers were committed to providing excellent care for my father and treated him with respect and dignity. Greg and his caretakers were consistently patient and kind, balancing excellent healthcare duties as well as friendship to make dads days meaningful.

Mr. Bixler went above and beyond his "8-5" duties. He often stayed with dad if a caretaker had an emergency and enjoyed visiting with dad during the day. Greg helped my father feel like a respected individual instead of an elderly patient. Greg also spent hours managing dad's long term health care insurance paperwork when my father was unable to manage those duties himself.

Trust and compassion are critical when considering hiring an individual and their agency to take care of your loved ones. I highly recommend Mr. Greg Bixler from Accessible Home Health Care to provide outstanding care for family or friends. lwelcome the opportunity to give my highest praise to Greg and his Agency
.”

- Janet, Athens Ohio, 45701


VERY FRIENDLY AND CARING!
"Our family contacted Accessible Home Health Care in November 2011. We met with Greg and Diane to assess our situation. They were very compassionate and concerned about the decision we were making concerning home care for our mother,

The caregivers assigned to morn (who then was 94) were very friendly and caring. They not only fixed her meals, they interacted with her and treated her as a friend. We have a log book Where they recorded their activities with her. They played cards, did puzzles, read the newspapers together, watched T.V. news and Weather, sparked conversations to keep her mind active and assisted with light household chores.

My sisters and I are very pleased with the attention, care and dependability our mother has received from Accessible Home Health Care. We highly recommend their services.
."

- Suzanne

For More Reviews and Testimonials Click Here

Call Us Today (419) 720-9595

HOMECARE
LIVE-IN CARE / HOURLY CARE / OVERNIGHT CARE
.

Home Care Today! There are more options than nursing homes...

Families used to think that nursing homes, assisted living communities and other care centers were the only solutions for aging loved ones when they began to change physically and cognitively. Now seniors and their families have choices to stay right at home. You have many choices that include Live-In Care, Hourly Care, Overnight Care and more.

Seeking exceptional in-home care?
Allow your parents to remain in the comfort of home.

Thanks to bonded, screened and trained Home Care Assistance caregivers, you can rest assured that your parents will be in excellent hands.

LIVE-IN CARE & PART-TIME / FULL TIME CARE

LIVE-IN CARE
“A Live-in caregiver stays in the adult’s home 24 hours a day, and is available to assist morning, noon, and night. There is a primary caregiver who provides care for four to five days a week and a back-up caregiver who covers the remainder of the week. Live-in care is usually needed when the adult cannot be left unattended during the day or night, yet the client is able to sleep through most of the night. Live-in companions assist with daily activities such as cooking, cleaning, laundry, and simple household chores.

They also help with personal care such as bathing, dressing, brushing the teeth, and incontinence care. Having a live-in companion also ensures that medications are taken on time, visits to doctor are made, and transportation to recreational activities are made. Symptoms of depression can be minimized with a caregiver who can provide the friendship and care daily. Historically, assisted living facilities and nursing homes have been viewed as the only choice for elderly people who need around-the-clock personal, non medical home care. Unfortunately, neither institution can guarantee the type of consistent, compassionate, one-on-one attention your elderly loved one deserves. “

HOURLY CARE
Hourly care is there for an adult who is able to do a few of the activities of daily living on their own but needs assistance with either preparing their meals, bathing & dressing, toileting or incontinence care, laundry, household chores, shopping, and transportation to appointments and activities. 4 hour minimums are normal in the care industry and additional hours can be added based on need of the adult in the home. The care provided is based on the schedule of the client and can be provided from 4 hours per day to 24x7 per day.

Our Workforce

- Can speak, read and understand English very well. They are carefully screened by doing a background check with the Department of Justice, FBI and DMV records. 

- They are well trained companions, certified Home Health Aides (CHHA), Nurses Aides, Companions and Homemakers who are CPR certified. They are bonded, insured & covered by workman's compensation. 

- We pride ourselves in taking extra care to match our clients with their caregivers. We believe it is extremely important to provide compatibility.    

Most of all, we live with our promise of treating our clients like "family". 

Caring for your loved one we regularly do:

- Parkinson's Disease Care
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Disabled Adults / Children
-
Alzheimer's Disease
-
Dementia
- Live-in Care / Hourly Care / Overnight Care
-
- Meal preparation, laundry and light housekeeping
- Errands and shopping
- Medication Management
- Personal care and grooming
- Monitoring vital signs
- Transportation to doctors appointments
- Incontinence care
- Exercise and mobility assistance
- Respite and Hospice relief
- Companionship and friendly conversation

Call Us Today (419) 720-9595
or For More Information About Home Care Click Here

RESPITE CARE

Family... take a break from the daily routine and stress!

Respite care is the provision of short-term, temporary relief to those who are caring for family members who might otherwise require permanent placement in a facility outside the home.

Caregiving is a demanding, difficult job and no one is equipped to do it alone.  Getting help is essential for your health, and is critical for your loved one.

Respite programs provide planned short-term and time-limited breaks for families and other unpaid care givers of children with a developmental delay and adults with an intellectual disability in order to support and maintain the primary care giving relationship. Respite also provides a positive experience for the person receiving care. The term "short break" is used in some countries to describe respite care. 

Working with family members or friends can prove to be incredible difficult. There are many respite care options and strategies that you may not be aware of. Call us today to find out more at (419) 720-9595.

Seeking support and maintaining one's own health are key to managing the caregiving years.

Using respite care before you become exhausted, isolated, or overwhelmed is very important.

Respite care has two main themes:

1) Sharing the responsibility for caregiving.  

2) With getting support for yourself you can find the right balance of persistence, patience, and preparation.

We specialize in various models for providing respite care including:

  • In-home respite
  • Specialized facility
  • Emergency respite
  • Sitter-companion services
  • Therapeutic adult day care

Call Us Today (419) 720-9595
or For More Information About Respite Care Click Here

HOSPICE CARE

We care for adult and pediatric patients with a wide range of life-limiting illnesses, including cancer, stroke, heart disease, lung disease, liver disease, kidney disease, multiple sclerosis, ALS, Alzheimer's and More!

Hospice is a type of care and a philosophy of care which focuses on the palliation of a terminally ill patient's symptoms.

Hospice is more a concept of care than a specific place. It is an option for people whose life expectancy is six months or less, and involves palliative care (pain and symptom relief) rather than ongoing curative measures, enabling you to live your end days to the fullest, with purpose, dignity, grace and support.

Our Hospice care gives medical, psychological and spiritual support. The goal of the care is to help people who are dying have peace, comfort and dignity.

Our caregivers try to control pain and other symptoms so a person can remain as alert and comfortable as possible.

Our Hospice program also provide services to support a patient's family.

When medical treatments can no longer cure a disease, our team of hospice caregivers still can do a great deal to control pain, reduce anxiety and offer needed spiritual and emotional support to patients and their families.

Call Us Today (419) 720-9595
or For More Information About Hospice Care Click Here

ELDER CARE

Where do we start when looking for resources for elder care for a loved one?

Resources that can help the elderly stay in their own home are the first place to start. A variety of independent living services are now available to help the elderly care for themselves in their own home despite their changing physical needs. This may help, delay or totally avoid moving into an assisted living or nursing home.

Elder care, sometimes referred to as long-term elderly care, includes a wide range of services that are provided over an extended period of time to people who need help to perform normal activities of daily living because of cognitive impairment or loss of muscular strength or control. Elder care can include rehabilitative therapies, skilled nursing care, palliative care, and social services, as well as supervision and a wide range of supportive personal care provided by family caregivers and/or home health care agencies. Elder care may also include training to help older people adjust to or overcome many of the limitations that often come with aging. If appropriate, elder care can at best be provided in the home first.

Sometimes, elder people refuse to shift to other places, even if the situation demands. For example, due to higher education or better career options relocating become inevitable. Sometimes, senior adults suffer from a sense of insecurity and lack the self-confidence. They prefer to stay at their own known place. Under this kind of situation, home care services for the elderly are one of the effective solutions.

Elder care is not limited to providing medical care. The aim of elderly home care ensures that senior adults lead an active lifestyle. Elderly home care ensures that adults become self-sufficient as much as possible. The caregivers or the companions help the adults in taking part in various activities according to their interest. With an active body, the mind equally becomes active, thereby adults regaining their self-confidence.

It is a pity that many senior citizens are moved to nursing-homes or hospitals, who might just require helping hand in running daily tasks of life. The solution to this type of problems lies in the hand of elderly home care services. Senior citizens, who need non-medical support, are also benefitted from this service. Senior home care services can provide a substitute to long-term care.

Since, in most of the cases working persons are unable to give adequate time, the variant services of the senior home care service works as a good alternative. These services include light housekeeping, meal preparation, errands and shopping, respite care, meditation assistance, hygiene assistance to name a few.

The longer period senior citizen spends time at their own home, they will stay healthy both physically and mentally. Take advantage of elderly home care to ensure a better life of your elderly loved one.

For more information or if you have any questions please call us.

Call Us Today at (419) 720-9595

ABOUT HOME CARE


Home Care
, (commonly referred to as domiciliary care), is health care or supportive care provided in the patient's home by healthcare professionals (often referred to as home health care or formal care; in the United States, it is also known as skilled care) or by family and friends (also known as caregivers, primary caregiver, or voluntary caregivers who give informal care). Often, the term home care is used to distinguish non-medical care or custodial care, which is care that is provided by persons who are not nurses, doctors, or other licensed medical personnel, whereas the term home health care, refers to care that is provided by licensed personnel.

Concept

"Home care", "home health care", "in-home care" are phrases that are used interchangeably in the United States to mean any type of care given to a person in their own home. Both phrases have been used in the past interchangeably regardless of whether the person requires skilled care or not. More recently, there is a growing movement to distinguish between "home health care" meaning skilled nursing care and "home care" meaning non-medical care. In the United Kingdom, "homecare" and "domiciliary care" are the preferred expressions.

Home care aims to make it possible for people to remain at home rather than use residential, long-term, or institutional-based nursing care. Home care providers render services in the client's own home. These services may include some combination of professional health care services and life assistance services.

Professional home health services could include medical or psychological assessment, wound care, medication teaching, pain management, disease education and management, physical therapy, speech therapy, or occupational therapy.

Life assistance services include help with daily tasks such as meal preparation, medication reminders, laundry, light housekeeping, errands, shopping, transportation, and companionship.

  • Activities of daily living (ADL) refers to six activities: (bathing, dressing, transferring, using the toilet, eating, and walking) that reflect the patient's capacity for self-care.
  • Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) refers to six daily tasks: (light housework, preparing meals, taking medications, shopping for groceries or clothes, using the telephone, and managing money) that enables the patient to live independently in the community.

While there are differences in terms used in describing aspects of home care or home health care in the United States and other areas of the world, for the most part the descriptions are very similar.

Estimates for the U.S. indicate that most home care is informal with families and friends providing a substantial amount of care. For formal care, the health care professionals most often involved are nurses followed by physical therapists and home care aides. Other health care providers include respiratory and occupational therapists, medical social workers and mental health workers. Home health care is generally paid for by Medicaid, long term insurance, or paid with the patient's own resources.

Aide worker qualifications

It is not a requirement that you have a GED or high school diploma, you will need to check with your local department of health for state requirements. Often aide workers have experience in institutional care facilities prior to a home care agency. Workers can take an examination to become a state tested Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA). Other requirements in the U.S.A. often include a background check, drug testing, and general references.

Licensure and providers by state

Ohio Ohio is NOT a licensure state for non medical or custodial care services and therefore there are no barriers to entry, no consumer protection laws, no minimum standards yet and no official state oversight. In Ohio the consumers and their families must adopt a "buyer beware" approach, do their homework and hire caregivers that are bonded and insured. This is why it is important to use a full service agency that has supervision and oversight of staff. Full service agencies also do preemployment background check (criminal), department of motor vehicle checks and reference checks. Staff become the agency's employee not an independent contractor or "under the table" person. Full service agencies also train, monitor and supervise the staff that provide care to clients in their home.

Payments and Fees

  • Home Health Aides Caregivers who work for IHSS (In Home Supportive Services- Social Security Administration) agencies are billed hourly at rate of about $9 to $15 depending on the state for self employed caregiver or caregivers hired directly by family. For caregivers hired though agency rates are generally $17-$24 since they are employees of the agency.
  • Live-in Aides Live-in aides rates are between $180–$220 per day. The rates are 20-30% higher for 2nd care recipient
  • Additional Fees Agencies' fees for non-medical home care are traditionally NOT reimbursed by State, Federal, or private medical insurance. However, private long-term care insurance will often reimburse policyholders for part of the cost of non-medical home care, depending upon the terms of the policies.

Compensation

  • 'Home Health Aides:' Caregivers working for state-licensed agencies bill at an hourly rate of about $11.00 to $25.00, depending on the state. A Home Health Aid employed by the agency is paid between $8.00 (current US minimum wage) and $12.00 or more per hour, depending on location.
  • Direct Hire Caregivers: Direct hire caregivers are either employed by home care agency or are self employed. A direct hire home care aid is paid between $8.00 and $15.00 per hour depending on location, number of hours, and experience. Agency paid caregivers receive $9.75-13.00 per hour, depending on care needs of recipient.

Recent Supreme Court case: Coke v. Long Island Home Care

For years, home care work has been selectively classified as a “companionship service” and exempted from federal overtime and minimum wage rules under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The Supreme Court considered arguments on the companionship exemption, which stems from a case brought by a home care worker represented by counsel provided by SEIU. The original 2003 case, Evelyn Coke v. Long Island Care at Home, Ltd. and Maryann Osborne, argues that agency-employed home caregivers should be covered under overtime and minimum wage regulations.

Evelyn Coke, a home care worker employed by a home care agency that was not paying her overtime, sued the agency in 2003, alleging that the regulation construing the “companionship services” exemption to apply to agency employees and exempt them from the federal minimum wage and overtime law is inconsistent with the law. The case has wound its way through the appeals process, and in January, the Supreme Court decided to hear the case this spring.

In the court decision, the court stated the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974 exempted from the minimum wage and maximum hours rules of the FSLA persons "employed in domestic service employment to provide companionship services for individuals . . . unable to care for themselves." 29 U. S. C. §213(a)(15). The court found that the DOL's power to administer a congressionally created program necessarily requires the making of rules to fill any 'gap' left, implicitly or explicitly, by Congress, and when that agency fills that gap reasonably, it is binding. In this case, one of the gaps was whether to include workers paid by third parties in the exemption and the DOL has done that. Since the DOL has followed public notice procedure, and since there was gap left in the legislation, the DOL's regulation stands and home health care workers are not covered by either minimum wage or overtime pay requirements.

2004 Study by NIHS

In February 2004, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) conducted the "National Home and Hospice Study," which was updated in 2005.

The data was collected on about approximately 1.3+ million (1,355,300) persons receiving home care in the USA. Of that total, almost 30% (29.5% or 400,100 persons) were under 65 years of age, while the majority, almost 70%, were over 65 years old (70.5% or 955,200 persons).

The 2005 chart data of estimates based on interviews with non-institutionalized citizens, however, shows a relatively stable number of about 6 to 7 percent of adults age 65 who needed help for personal care (ADLs) - this has remained about the same between 1997 and 2004. (Data has a 95% reliability.) Those aged 85 or older were at least 6 times more likely (20.6%) to need ADL assistance than those of age 65. Between age 65 and 85 years, more women than men needed help.

To review the 2005 Early Release data used, visit the NCHS-NHIS website to see the PDF files. [NOTE: * The 2005 data reflects data, still between 6 to 7%, is only based on interviews conducted between January to June 2005, so it remains to be seen whether the figure remained constant or changed through the end of 2005.] Again, the 1998-2005 data is specific for over 65 or older and does not include any data for adults under 65 years old.

In the 2004 data, just over 30% (30.2% or 385,500) of the total 1.3+million persons lived alone, but the study did not break this down by age groups. A large portion, 1,094,900 or 80.8% had a primary caregiver, and almost 76% (75.9% or 831,100 lived with the primary caregiver, typically the spouse, child or child-in-law, other relative or parent, in that order. (Paid help and the category of neighbor/friend/ or unknown caregiver would be, for the majority, were living with non-family (4.3%) or unknown living arrangement .) Most patients still need external help, even if the primary caregiver is a spouse.

A total of 600,900 persons received personal care.

Payment described in the 2004 study

Page 4 of the study describes the population break-down by type of payment used. Of the 1.3+ million:

710,000 paid by Medicare - Medicare often is the primary billing source, if this is the primary carrier between two types of insurance (like between Medicare and Medicaid). Also, if a patient has Medicare and that patient has a "skilled need" requiring nursing visits, the patient's case is typically billed under Medicare.

277,000 paid by Medicaid - This number seems low for Community Based Services (CBS) or Home Care (HC), especially as a nationwide statistic.

235,000 paid by private insurance, or self/family - Private insurance includes VA (Veterans Administration), some Railroad or Steelworkers health plans or other private insurance. "Self/family" indicates "private pay" status, when the patient or family pays 100% of all home care charges. Home care fees can be quite high; few patients & families can absorb these costs for a long period of time.

133,200 all other payments - including patients unable to pay, or who had no charge for care, or those whose payment "source not yet determined or approved." Sometimes after "opening a case" (the formal paperwork process of admitting a patient to home care services, there can be a short period of time when the office has not yet received approval by one of two or more insurances held by the patient. This is not unusual. There can also be cases where the office must make phone calls to be sure a particular diagnosis is "covered" by the patient's primary insurance. This is not unusual. These delays explain, in part, a couple circumstances where payment source would be listed as "unknown."

CBLTC expenditures

Community-Based Long Term Care (CBLTC) is the newer name for Home Health Care Services paid by States' Medicaid programs. Most of these programs have a category called 'Medicaid Waiver' to define level of care being delivered.

The Study "Medicaid Home and Community-Based Long Term Care – Trends in the U.S. and Maryland" funded by the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, Department of Education, Information Brokering for Long Term Care, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, focused on expenditures. In this study, the Medicaid Waiver Expenditures by Recipient Group in 2001 based on total expenditure of $14,218,236,802 was broken down in this manner of actual spending (presumably this is based on nationwide figures):


  • MR/DD 74%
  • Aged/Disabled 17%
  • Disabled/Phy. Disabled 4%
  • Aged 3%
  • Children 1%
  • TBI/Head Injury 1%
  • AIDS < 1%
  • Mental Health <1% (less than 1%)

But, the same report included figures on "Participants by Recipient Type" in 2001 based on a total number of 832,915. Participant types were broken down thus (presumably this is based on nationwide figures):

  • Aged/Disabled 41%
  • MR/DD 39%
  • Aged 11%
  • Disabled /Phy. Disabled 5%
  • AIDS 2%
  • Children 1%
  • TBI/Head Injury 1%
  • Mental Health <1% (less than 1%)


This data would be interpreted that the MR/DD population represents 39% of the study population of 832,915, and this population used 74% of the available resources of the total expenditure of $14,218,236,802. The aged/disabled population had a higher number of patients in need at 41%, but only had 17% of the total dollar expenditure. The Disabled/Physically Disabled Group (presumably minus the aged in the statistics given - but this group was not well defined in this study's report, as to age etc.), represented 5% of the population and used just 4% of allocated funding. Adding the Aged/Disabled with those of "Disabled/Physically Disabled," the total group would represent 45% in population which used just 22% of funding. Again, the 39% MR/DD used 74%, more than three times higher than the larger group of disabled citizens.

ABOUT RESPITE CARE


Respite care is the provision of short-term, temporary relief to those who are caring for family members who might otherwise require permanent placement in a facility outside the home.

Respite programs provide planned short-term and time-limited breaks for families and other unpaid care givers of children with a developmental delay and adults with an intellectual disability in order to support and maintain the primary care giving relationship. Respite also provides a positive experience for the person receiving care. The term "short break" is used in some countries to describe respite care.

In the United States today there are approximately 50 million people who are caring at home for family members including elderly parents, and spouses and children with disabilities and/or chronic illnesses. Without this home-care, most of these cared for loved ones would require permanent placement in institutions or health care facilities.

Even though many families take great joy in providing care to their loved ones so that they can remain at home, the physical, emotional and financial consequences for the family caregiver can be overwhelming without some support, such as respite. Respite provides the much needed temporary break from the often exhausting challenges faced by the family caregiver.

Respite is the service most often requested by family caregivers, yet it is in critically short supply, inaccessible, or unaffordable regardless of the age or disability of the individual needing assistance. While the focus has been on making sure families have the option of providing care at home, little attention has been paid to the needs of the family caregivers who make this possible.

Without respite, not only can families suffer economically and emotionally, caregivers themselves may face serious health and social risks as a result of stress associated with continuous caregiving. Three fifths of family caregivers age 19-64 surveyed recently by the Commonwealth Fund reported fair or poor health, one or more chronic conditions, or a disability, compared with only one-third of non caregivers.

Respite has been shown to help sustain family caregiver health and wellbeing, avoid or delay out-of-home placements, and reduce the likelihood of abuse and neglect. An outcome based evaluation pilot study show that respite may also reduce the likelihood of divorce and help sustain marriages.

Models for Respite

There are various models for providing respite care including:

  • In-home respite
  • Specialized facility
  • Emergency respite
  • Sitter-companion services
  • Therapeutic adult day care

In-home respite

In-home care is popular for obvious reasons. The temporary caregiver comes to the regular caregiver’s home, and gets to know the care receiver in his or her normal environment. The temporary caregiver learns the family routine, where medicines are stored, and the care receiver is not inconvenienced by transportation and strange environments. In this model, friends, relatives and paid professionals may be used. Depending on the state, Medicaid or Medicare may be used to help cover costs. Another in-home model will utilize friends and neighbors as helping hands where the primary caregiver never leaves the premises but may simply be getting a break so that they can cook dinner or pay the bills.

Specialized facility

Another model uses a specialized, local facility where the care receiver may stay for a few days or a few weeks. The advantage of this model is that the specialized facility will probably have better access to emergency facilities and professional assistance if needed.

Emergency respite

There may be the need for respite care on an emergency basis. When using "planned" emergency care, the caregiver has already identified a provider or facility to call in case there is an emergency. Many homecare agencies, adult day care, health centers, and residential care facilities provide emergency respite care.

Sitter-companion services

Sitter-companion services are sometimes provided by local civic groups, the faith community and other community organizations. A regular sitter-companion can provide friendly respite care for a few hours, once or twice a week. Care must be taken to assure that the sitter-companion is trained in what to do if an emergency occurs while the regular care-giver is out of the home.

Therapeutic adult day care

Therapeutic adult day care may provide respite care during business hours five days a week.

The Lifespan Respite Act

Recognizing this significant contribution and the needs faced by America’s caregivers, the United States Congress passed The Lifespan Respite Care Act of 2006 (HR 3248) which was signed into law in December 2006. The bill was introduced and championed in the US House of Representatives by Rep. Mike Ferguson and James Langevin (D-RI). A companion bill in the Senate was cosponsored by Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY) and Senator John Warner.

Much of the success for the passage of this legislation is due to the work of The Lifespan Respite Task Force which includes a diverse group of national and state organizations, state respite and crisis care coalitions; health and community social services; disability, mental health, education, faith, family caregiving and support groups; groups from the child advocacy and the aging community; and abuse and neglect prevention groups.

If and when the new law is funded, (check progress at the ARCH website) it will provide funds for states to develop lifespan respite programs to help families access quality, affordable respite care. Lifespan respite programs are defined in the Act “as coordinated systems of accessible, community-based respite care services for family caregivers of children and adults with special needs.” Specifically, the law authorizes funds for:

  • Development of state and local lifespan respite programs
  • Planned or emergency respite care services
  • Training and recruitment of respite care workers and volunteers
  • Caregiver training

When the bill passed the House, Rep. Ferguson, whose own father was a caregiver for his ill mother for six years said , “Today's action by the House of Representatives represents not only an important victory for family caregivers nationwide, but it also sends America's caregivers a clear message: Your selfless sacrifice is appreciated, and help is on the way.”

The Lifespan Respite Care Act of 2006 is based on model state lifespan respite programs that have successfully addressed all of these barriers. Three states have enacted legislation to implement lifespan respite programs (Oregon, Nebraska, Wisconsin), which establish state and local infrastructures for developing, providing, coordinating and improving access to respite for all caregivers, regardless of age, disability or family situation. Oklahoma has also implemented a successful lifespan respite program.

Respite in the US

An estimated 50 million family caregivers nationwide provide at least $306 billion in uncompensated services — an amount comparable to Medicare spending in 2004 and more than twice what is spent nationwide on nursing homes and paid home care combined. Family caregivers may suffer from physical, emotional, and financial problems that impede their ability to give care now and support their own care needs in the future. Without attention to their needs, their ability to continue providing care may well be jeopardized.

Respite care is one of the services that Alzheimer’s caregivers say they need most. One study found that if respite care delays institutionalization of a person with Alzheimer’s disease by as little as a month, $1.12 billion is saved annually. A similar study in 1995 found that as respite use increased, the probability of nursing home placement decreased significantly

U.S. businesses also incur high costs in terms of decreased productivity by stressed working caregivers. A study by MetLife estimates the loss to U.S. employers to be between $17.1 and $33.6 billion per year. This includes replacement costs for employees who quit because of overwhelming caregiving responsibilities, absenteeism, and workday interruptions.

Caregiver wellness reduces hospitalizations, doctor visits, work absences

Significant percentages of family caregivers report physical or mental health problems due to caregiving. A recent survey of caregivers of children, adults and the disabled conducted by the National Family Caregivers Association, found that while 70% of the respondents reported finding an inner strength they didn’t know they had, 27% reported having more headaches, 24% reported stomach disorders, 41% more back pain, 51% more sleeplessness and 61% reported more depression.

Three fifths of family caregivers age 19-64 surveyed recently by the Commonwealth Fund reported fair or poor health, one or more chronic conditions, or a disability, compared with only one-third of non caregivers. Caregivers reported chronic conditions at nearly twice the rate of non caregivers (45% to 24%).

A 1999 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that participants who were providing care for an elderly individual with a disability and experiencing caregiver strain had mortality risks that were 63% higher than non caregiving controls.

In an Iowa survey of parents of children with disabilities, a significant relationship was demonstrated between the severity of a child’s disability and their parents missing more work hours than other employees. They also found that the lack of available respite care appeared to interfere with parents accepting job opportunities.

Respite for younger family members with disabilities

Respite has been shown to improve family functioning, improve satisfaction with life, enhance the capacity to cope with stress, and improve attitudes toward the family member with a disability.

In a 1989 US national survey of families of a child with a disability, 74% reported that respite had made a significant difference in their ability to provide care at home; 35% of the respite users indicated that without respite services they would have considered out-of-home-placement for their family member.

There was a statistically significant reduction in somatic complaints by in a study of primary caregivers of children with chronic illnesses, and a decrease in the number of hospitalization days required by children, as a direct result of respite care.

Data from an ongoing research project of the Oklahoma State University on the effects of respite care found that the number of hospitalizations, as well as the number of medical care claims decreased as the number of respite care days increased.

A Massachusetts social services program designed to provide cost-effective family-centered respite care for children with complex medical needs found that for families participating for more than one year, the number of hospitalizations decreased by 75%, physician visits decreased by 64%, and antibiotics use decreased by 71%.

An evaluation of the Iowa Respite Child Care Project for families parenting a child with developmental disabilities found that when respite care is used by the families, there is a statistically significant decrease in foster care placement.

A 1999 study of Vermont’s then 10-year-old respite care program for families with children or adolescents with serious emotional disturbance found that participating families experience fewer out-of home placements than nonusers and were more optimistic about their future capabilities to take care of their children.

Results when caregivers of the elderly use respite

Respite for the elderly with chronic disabilities in a study group resulted in fewer hospital admissions for acute medical care than for two other control groups who received no respite care

Sixty-four percent of caregivers of the elderly receiving 4 hours of respite per week, after one year, reported improved physical health. Seventy-eight percent improved their emotional health, and 50% cited improvement in the care recipient as well. Forty percent said they were less likely to institutionalize the care recipient because of respite.

Caregivers of relatives with dementia who use adult day care experience lower levels of caregiving related stress and better psychological well-being than a control group not using this service. These differences were found in both short-term (3 months) and long-term (12 months) users.

Respite provided across the lifespan yields positive outcomes

In a 2004 survey conducted by the Oklahoma Respite Resource Network, 88% of caregivers agreed that respite allowed their loved one to remain at home, 98% of caregivers stated that respite made them a better caregiver, 98% of caregivers said respite increased their ability to provide a less stressful environment, and 79.5% of caregivers said respite contributed to the stability of their marriage.

When newly formed, the Nebraska statewide lifespan respite program conducted a statewide survey of a broad array of caregivers who had been receiving respite services, and found that one in four families with children under 21 reported that they were less likely to place their child in out-of-home care once respite services were available. In addition, 79% of the respondents reported decreased stress and 58% reported decreased isolation.

Data from an outcome based evaluation pilot study show that respite may also reduce the likelihood of divorce and help sustain marriages

ABOUT HOSPICE CARE


Hospice is a type of care and a philosophy of care which focuses on the palliation of a terminally ill patient's symptoms. These symptoms can be physical, emotional, spiritual or social in nature. The concept of hospice has been evolving since the 11th century. Then, and for centuries thereafter, hospices were places of hospitality for the sick, wounded, or dying, as well as those for travelers and pilgrims. The modern concept of hospice includes palliative care for the incurably ill given in such institutions as hospitals or nursing homes, but also care provided to those who would rather die in their own homes. It began to emerge in the 17th century, but many of the foundational principles by which modern hospice services operate were pioneered in the 1950s by Dame Cicely Saunders. Although the movement has met with some resistance, hospice has rapidly expanded through the United Kingdom, the United States and elsewhere.

History

The early development of hospice

Linguistically, the word "hospice" is derived from the Latin hospes, a word which served double-duty in referring both to guests and hosts. The first hospices are believed to have originated in the 11th century, around 1065, when for the first time the incurably ill were permitted into places dedicated to treatment by Crusaders. In the early 14th century, the order of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem opened the first hospice in Rhodes, meant to provide refuge for travelers and care for the ill and dying. Hospices flourished in the Middle Ages, but languished as religious orders were dispersed. They were revived in the 17th century in France by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. France continued to see development in the hospice field; the hospice of L'Association des Dames du Calvaire, founded by Jeanne Garnier, opened in 1843. Six other hospices followed before 1900.

Meanwhile, hospices were established as well in other areas. In the United Kingdom, attention was drawn to the needs of the terminally ill in the middle of the 19th century, with Lancet and the British Medical Journal publishing articles pointing to the need of the impoverished terminally ill for good care and sanitary conditions. Steps were taken to remedy inadequate facilities with the opening of the Friedenheim in London, which by 1892 offered 35 beds to patients dying of tuberculosis. Four more hospices were established in London by 1905. Australia, too, was seeing active hospice development, with notable hospices including the Home for Incurables in Adelaide (1879), the Home of Peace (1902) and the Anglican House of Peace for the Dying in Sydney (1907). In 1899, New York City saw the opening of St. Rose's Hospice by the Servants for Relief of Incurable Cancer, who soon expanded with six locations in other cities.

Among the more influential early developers of Hospice were the Irish Religious Sisters of Charity, who opened Our Lady's Hospice in Harold's Cross, Dublin, Ireland in 1879. It proved to be very busy, with as many as 20,000 people—primarily suffering tuberculosis and cancer—coming to the hospice to die between 1845 and 1945. The Sisters of Charity expanded internationally, opening the Sacred Heart Hospice for the Dying in Sydney in 1890, with hospices in Melbourne and New South Wales following in the 1930s. In 1905, they opened St Joseph's Hospice in London. It was there in the 1950s that Cicely Saunders developed many of the foundational principles of modern hospice care.

The rise of the modern hospice movement

Saunders was an English registered nurse whose chronic health problems had forced her to pursue a career in medical social work. The relationship she developed with a dying Polish refugee helped solidify her ideas that terminally ill patients needed compassionate care to help address their fears and concerns as well as palliative comfort for physical symptoms. After the refugee's death, Saunders began volunteering at St Luke's Home for the Dying Poor, where a physician told her that she could best influence the treatment of the terminally ill as a physician. Saunders entered medical school while continuing her volunteer work at St. Joseph's. When she achieved her degree in 1957, she took a position there.

Saunders emphasized focusing on the patient rather than the disease and introduced the notion of 'total pain', which included psychological and spiritual as well as the physical aspects. She experimented with a wide range of opioids for controlling physical pain but included also the needs of the patient's family. She disseminated her philosophy internationally in a series of tours of the United States that began in 1963. In 1967, Saunders opened St. Christopher's Hospice. Florence Wald, the dean of Yale School of Nursing who had heard Saunders speak in America, spent a month working with Saunders there in 1969 before bringing the principles of modern hospice care back to the United States, establishing Hospice, Inc. in 1971.

At about the same time that Saunders was disseminating her theories and developing her hospice, in 1965, Swiss psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross also began to consider the social responses to terminal illness, which she found inadequate at the Chicago hospital where her American physician husband was employed. Her 1969 best-seller, On Death and Dying, was influential on how the medical profession responded to the terminally ill, and along with Saunders and other thanatology pioneers helped to focus attention on the types of care available to them.

Hospice care around the world

Hospice has faced resistance springing from various factors, including professional or cultural taboos against open communication about death among physicians or the wider population, discomfort with unfamiliar medical techniques, and professional callousness towards the terminally ill. Nevertheless, the movement has, with national differences in focus and application, spread throughout the world.

In 1984, Dr. Josefina Magno, who had been instrumental in forming the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and sat as first executive director of the US National Hospice Organization, founded the International Hospice Institute, which in 1996 became the International Hospice Institute and College and later the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC). The IAHPC, with a board of directors as of 2008 from such diverse countries as Scotland, Argentina, Hong Kong and Uganda, works from the philosophy that each country should develop a palliative care model based on its own resources and conditions, evaluating hospice experiences in other countries but adapting to their own needs. Dr. Derek Doyle, who was a founding member of IAHPC, told the British Medical Journal in 2003 that through her work the Philippine-born Magno had seen "more than 8000 hospice and palliative services established in more than 100 countries."Standards for Palliative and Hospice Care have been developed in a number of countries around the world, including Australia, Canada, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Moldova, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.

In 2006, the United States based National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) and the United Kingdom's Help the Hospices jointly commissioned an independent, international study of worldwide palliative care practices. Their survey found that 15% of the world's countries offered widespread palliative care services with integration into major health care institutions, while an additional 35% offered some form of palliative care services, though these might be localized or very limited. As of 2009, there were an estimated 10,000 programs internationally intended to provide palliative care, although the term hospice is not always employed to describe such services.

Hospice care in Africa

1980 saw the opening of a hospice in Harare, Zimbabwe, the first in Sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of skepticism in the medical community, the hospice movement spread, and in 1987 the Hospice Palliative Care Association of South Africa formed In 1990, Nairobi Hospice opened in Nairobi, Kenya. As of 2006, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda were among the 35 countries of the world offering widespread, well-integrated palliative care. Programs there are based on the United Kingdom model, but focus less on in-patient care, emphasizing home-based assistance.

Since the foundation of hospice in Kenya in the early 1990s, palliative care has spread through the country. Representatives of Nairobi Hospice sit on the committee to develop a Health Sector Strategic Plan for the Ministry of Health and are working with the Ministry of Health to help develop specific palliative care guidelines for cervical cancer. The Government of Kenya has supported hospice by donating land to Nairobi Hospice and providing funding to several of its nurses.

In South Africa, hospice services are widespread, focusing on diverse communities (including orphans and homeless) and offered in diverse settings (including in-patient, day care and home care). Over half of hospice patients in South Africa in the 2003-2004 year were diagnosed with AIDS, with the majority of the remaining having been diagnosed with cancer. Palliative care in South Africa is supported by the Hospice Palliative Care Association of South Africa and by national programmes partly funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

Hospice Africa Uganda (HAU) began offering services in 1993 in a two-bedroom house loaned for the purpose by Nsambya Hospital. HAU has since expanded to a base of operations at Makindye, Kampala, with hospice services also offered at roadside clinics by Mobile Hospice Mbarara since January 1998. That same year saw the opening of Little Hospice Hoima in June. Hospice care in Uganda is supported by community volunteers and professionals, as Makerere University offers a distance diploma in palliative care. The government of Uganda has a strategic plan for palliative care and permits nurses and clinical officers from HAU to prescribe morphine.

Hospice care in North America
Hospice care in Canada

Canadian physician Balfour Mount, who first coined the term "palliative care", was a pioneer in the Canadian hospice movement, which focuses primarily on palliative care in a hospital setting. Having read the work of Kubler-Ross, Mount set out to study the experiences of the terminally ill at Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal; the "abysmal inadequacy", as he termed it, that he found prompted him to spend a week with Saunders at St. Christopher's. Inspired, Mount decided to adapt Saunders' model for Canada. Given differences in medical funding in Canada, he determined that a hospital-based approach would be more affordable, creating a specialized ward at Royal Victoria in January, 1975. For Canada, whose official languages include English and French, Mount felt the term "palliative care ward" would be more appropriate, as the word hospice was already used in France to refer to nursing homes. Hundreds of palliative care programs followed throughout Canada through the 1970s and 1980s.

However, as of 2004, according to the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association (CHPCA), hospice palliative care was only available to 5-15% of Canadians, with available services having decreased with reduced government funding. At that time, Canadians were increasingly expressing a desire to die at home, but only two of Canada's ten provinces were provided medication cost coverage for care provided at home. Only four of the ten identified palliative care as a core health service. At that time, palliative care was not widely taught at nursing schools or universally certified at medical colleges; there were only 175 specialized palliative care physicians in all of Canada.

Hospice in the United States has grown from a volunteer-led movement to improve care for people dying alone, isolated, or in hospitals, to a significant part of the health care system. In 2008, 1.45 million individuals and their families received hospice care. Hospice is the only Medicare benefit that includes pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, twenty-four hour/seven day a week access to care and support for loved ones following a death. Hospice care is also covered by Medicaid and most private insurance plans. Most hospice care is delivered at home. Hospice care is also available to people in home-like hospice residences, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, veterans' facilities, hospitals, and prisons.

The first United States hospital-based palliative care programs began in the late 1980s at a handful of institutions such as the Cleveland Clinic and Medical College of Wisconsin. By 1995, hospices were a $2.8 billion industry in the United States, with $1.9 billion from Medicare alone funding patients in 1,857 hospice programs with Medicare certification. In that year, 72% of hospice providers were non-profit. By 1998, there were 3,200 hospices either in operation or under development throughout the United States and Puerto Rico, according to the NHPCO. According to 2007's Last Rights: Rescuing the End of Life from the Medical System, hospice sites are expanding at a national rate of about 3.5% per year. As of 2008, approximately 900,000 people in the United States were utilizing hospice every year, with more than one-third of dying Americans utilizing the service.

Hospice care in the United Kingdom

The hospice movement has grown dramatically in the United Kingdom since Saunders opened St. Christopher's. According to the UK's Help the Hospices in 2009, UK hospice services consisted of 220 inpatient units for adults with 3,203 beds, 39 inpatient units for children with 298 beds, 314 home care services, 106 hospice at home services, 280 day care services, and 346 hospital support services. These services together helped over 250,000 patients in 2003 & 2004. Funding varies from 100% funding by the National Health Service to almost 100% funding by charities, but the service is always free to patients.

As of 2006 about 4% of all deaths in England and Wales occurred in a hospice setting (about 20,000 patients); a further number of patients spent time in a hospice, or were helped by hospice-based support services, but died elsewhere.

Hospice care in other nations

Hospice care entered Poland in the middle of the 1970s. Japan opened its first hospice in 1981, officially hosting 160 by July 2006. The first hospice unit in Israel was opened in 1983. India's first hospice, Shanti Avedna Ashram, opened in Bombay in 1986. The first modern free-standing hospice in China opened in Shanghai in 1988. The first hospice unit in Taiwan, where the term for hospice translates "peaceful care", was opened in 1990. The first free-standing hospice in Hong Kong, where the term for hospice translates "well-ending service", opened in 1992. The first hospice in Russia was established in 1997.

ABOUT TOLEDO OHIO
HOMECARE, RESPITE, ALZHEIMER'S, DEMENTIA, COMPANION SERVICES
Toledo, Ohio
—  City  —
City of Toledo
Images, from top left to right: Downtown Toledo, University Hall, Toledo Museum of Art, Lucas County Courthouse, Tony Packo's Cafe, Anthony Wayne Bridge, Fifth Third Field

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Nickname(s): The Glass City; T-town; Frogtown; the 419; TOL
Motto: "A Business Friendly City of the Future"
Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio.
Toledo, Ohio is located in Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
Location in the state of Ohio
Zip codes: 43601 43603 43604 43605 43606 43607 43608 43609 43610 43611 43612 43613 43614 43615 43617 43620 43623 43635 43652 43654 43656 43657 43659 43660 43661 43666 43667 43681 43682 43697 43699
Country United States
State Ohio
County Lucas
Founded 1833
Government
 • Mayor Michael P. Bell (I)
Area
 • City 84.1 sq mi (217.8 km2)
 • Land 80.6 sq mi (208.8 km2)
 • Water 3.5 sq mi (8.9 km2)
Elevation 614 ft (187 m)
Population (2011)
 • City 286,038 (US: 67th)
 • Density 3,768/sq mi (1,454.7/km2)
 • Urban 503,008
 • Metro 650,266 (US: 82th)
 • Demonym Toledoan
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 419, 567
FIPS code 39-77000
GNIS feature ID 1067015
Website www.toledo.oh.gov

Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan. The city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory, then re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. Toledo grew quickly as a result of the Miami and Erie Canal and its position on the railway line between New York and Chicago. It has since become a city well known for its industry, particularly in glass and auto assembly, as well as for its art community, education, and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, while the Toledo metropolitan area had a population of 651,409.

History

French trading posts operated in the area as far back as 1680. The area was first settled by Americans in 1845, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, with the founding of Fort Industry. However, many settlers fled the area during the War of 1812. Resettlement began around 1868 when a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre (3.9 km2) tract at the mouth of Cedar Creek and named it Port Lawrence, creating the modern downtown area. Immediately to the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end. These two towns physically bordered each other with Cherry Street dividing them. This is why present day streets on the northeast side of Cherry Street run at a slightly different angle from those to the southwest of it.

19th Century

In 1825, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of Miami and Erie Canal and later its Wabash and Erie Canal extension in 1833. The canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie because at that time no highways existed in the state and it was thus very difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal’s planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River heavily competed to be the ending terminus of the canal knowing it would give them a profitable status. The towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the towns of Waterville, Maumee, and Manhattan.

The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends. One recounts that Washington Irving, who was traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident; this explanation ignores the fact that Irving returned to the United States in 1832. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major who quaintly numbered his sons and named his daughters after States. The most popular version attributes the naming to Willard J. Daniels, a merchant, who reportedly suggested Toledo because it 'is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent." Despite Toledo’s efforts, the final terminus was decided to be built in Manhattan a half mile to the north of Toledo because it was closer to the lake. As a compromise, the state placed two sidecuts before the terminus, one in Toledo at Swan Creek and another in Maumee.

An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835–1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to conflicting legislation concerning the location of the Ohio-Michigan state line. Militias from both states were sent but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia. In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given a larger portion of the Upper Peninsula in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for One and Two Stickney.

Toledo was very slow to expand in its first two decades of existence. Its very first lot was sold in the Port Lawrence section of the city in 1833. It held 1,205 persons in 1835, and five years later it held just seven more men. Settlers came and went quickly through Toledo and between 1833 and 1836, ownership of land had changed so many times that none of the original parties still existed. The canal and its Toledo sidecut entrance were completed in 1843; soon after the canal was functional, the canal boats became too large to use the shallow waters at the terminus in Manhattan. More boats began using the Swan Creek sidecut than its official ending, quickly putting the Manhattan warehouses out of business and triggering a rush to move business to Toledo.

A 1955 Interstate planning map of Toledo

Most of Manhattan's residents moved out by 1844. The 1850 census gives Toledo 3,829 residences and Manhattan 541. The 1860 census shows Toledo with a population of 13,768 and Manhattan with 788. While the towns were only a mile apart, Toledo grew by 359% in ten years while Manhattan only grew by 148% because of the change in the canal outlet. By the 1880s, Toledo expanded over the vacant streets of Manhattan and Tremainsville, a small town to the west.

In the last half of the 19th century, railroads slowly began to replace canals as the major form of transportation. Toledo soon became a hub for several railroad companies and a hotspot for industries like furniture producers, carriage makers, breweries, glass manufacturers, and others. Large immigrant populations came to the area, attracted by the many factory jobs available and the city's easy accessibility. By 1880, Toledo was one of the largest cities in Ohio.

Toledo is the birthplace of "The Logistics King" Jeff Kummer. He was the innovator of the logistics revolution in the late 70's. Jeff was the director of world wide shipping and helped the FBI in the recovery of over 100 million dollars in stolen goods.

20th Century to present

Toledo continued to expand in population and industry into the early 20th century, but because of a dependency on manufacturing, the city was hit hard by the Great Depression. Many large scale WPA projects were constructed to reemploy citizens in the 1930s. Some of these include the amphitheater and aquarium at the Toledo Zoo and a major expansion to the Toledo Museum of Art.

In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Toledo's population as 94.8% white and 5.2% black. The city rebounded, but the slump of American manufacturing in the second half of the 20th century, along with the nationwide epidemic of white flight from cities to suburbs, led to a depressed city by the time of the 1980s national recession. The destruction of many buildings downtown, along with several failed business ventures in housing in the core, led to a reverse city-suburb wealth problem common in small cities with land to spare.

In recent years, downtown Toledo has undergone significant redevelopment to draw residents back to the city. Fifth Third Field opened in 2002, and the Huntington Center opened in 2009. The riverfront area adjacent to International Park has been upgraded with walking trails, landscaping and several restaurants have opened nearby.

Geography

Topography

Toledo is located at 41°39?56?N 83°34?31?W? / ?41.66556°N 83.57528°W? / 41.66556; -83.57528 (41.665682, -83.575337). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 84.1 square miles (218 km2), of which 80.6 square miles (209 km2) is land and 3.5 square miles (9.1 km2) (4.10%) is water. The city straddles the Maumee River at the southern end of Maumee Bay, the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. Toledo sits north of what had been the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. An important ecological site, Toledo sits within the borders of a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings Region that once took up over 300 square miles (780 km2). Toledo is located within approximately four hours or less of eight major US cities: Detroit, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Indianapolis, and Chicago.

Climate

Toledo, like several other cities in the Great Lakes region, experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), characterized by four distinct seasons. Both temperature and precipitation vary widely seasonally. Lake Erie moderates the climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is lessened in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over in most winters (unlike the other Great Lakes), coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. Southerly and westerly prevailing winds combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie in summer also negate the lake's cooling ability on the city; furthermore, the lake's presence increases humidity.

Summers are very warm and humid, with July averaging 73.0 °F (22.8 °C) and temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or more seen on 15 days. Winters are cold and somewhat snowy, with a January mean temperature of 23.9 °F (-4.5 °C), and lows at or below 0 °F (-18 °C) on 9 nights. The spring and summer months tend to be wetter than autumn and winter. About 37 inches (94 cm) of snow falls per year, much less than the Snow Belt cities because of the prevailing wind direction. Temperature extremes have ranged from -20 °F (-29 °C) on January 21, 1984 to 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936.

Climate data for Toledo, Ohio (Toledo Express Airport), 1981-2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
(22)
71
(22)
85
(29)
89
(32)
96
(36)
104
(40)
105
(41)
103
(39)
100
(38)
92
(33)
80
(27)
70
(21)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 32.4
(0.2)
35.8
(2.1)
46.7
(8.2)
60.0
(15.6)
70.9
(21.6)
80.5
(26.9)
84.4
(29.1)
82.1
(27.8)
75.2
(24.0)
62.7
(17.1)
49.5
(9.7)
36.3
(2.4)
59.71
(15.39)
Average low °F (°C) 18.1
(-7.7)
20.3
(-6.5)
28.0
(-2.2)
38.5
(3.6)
48.2
(9.0)
58.0
(14.4)
62.2
(16.8)
60.6
(15.9)
52.6
(11.4)
41.6
(5.3)
33.0
(0.6)
22.8
(-5.1)
40.33
(4.63)
Record low °F (°C) -20
(-29)
-16
(-27)
-10
(-23)
8
(-13)
25
(-4)
32
(0)
40
(4)
34
(1)
26
(-3)
15
(-9)
2
(-17)
-19
(-28)
-20
(-29)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.05
(52.1)
2.07
(52.6)
2.47
(62.7)
3.19
(81)
3.58
(90.9)
3.56
(90.4)
3.23
(82)
3.14
(79.8)
2.78
(70.6)
2.60
(66)
2.85
(72.4)
2.67
(67.8)
34.19
(868.4)
Snowfall inches (cm) 11.6
(29.5)
9.3
(23.6)
5.6
(14.2)
1.3
(3.3)
.1
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
.2
(0.5)
1.9
(4.8)
6.8
(17.3)
36.8
(93.5)
Avg. precipitation days (? 0.01 in) 12.7 10.2 11.8 12.0 12.0 10.2 9.8 9.2 9.7 10.0 11.4 13.1 132.1
Avg. snowy days (? 0.1 in) 9.3 7.4 4.8 1.4 .1 0 0 0 0 .2 2.3 7.4 32.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 144.1 182.9 213.0 266.6 288.0 300.7 263.5 219.0 179.8 105.0 89.9 2,379.6
Source #1: NOAA
Source #2: ThreadEx (extremes 1871-present)

Cityscape

Downtown Toledo's skyline from across the Maumee River

List of tallest buildings in Toledo

Neighborhoods and suburbs

Toledo Metropolitan Area

According to the US Census Bureau, the Toledo Metropolitan Area covers 4 Ohio counties and combines with other micropolitan areas and counties for a combined statistical area. Some of the suburbs in Ohio include:Bowling Green, Holland, Lake Township, Maumee, Millbury, Monclova Township, Northwood, Oregon, Ottawa Hills, Perrysburg, Rossford, Springfield Township, Sylvania, Walbridge, Waterville, Whitehouse, and Washington Township. The Old West End is a historic neighborhood of Victorian, Arts & Crafts, and other Edwardian style houses recognized by the National Register of Historic Places.

Toledo is divided into the following neighborhoods:

  • Beverly, 45715, 45721
  • Birmingham, 44816
  • DeVeaux, 43613
  • Crossgates, 43614
  • Five Points, 44302
  • Downtown, 43601 43603 43604 43605 43606 43607 43608 43609 43610 43611 43612 43613 43614 43615 43617
  • East Toledo
  • Franklin Park
  • Garfield
  • Harvard Terrace
  • Library Village
  • North Towne
  • Old Orchard
  • Old West End
  • Old South End
  • ONE Village (includes the Polish International Village, Vistula, & North River)
  • ONYX (includes historic Kuschwantz and Lenk's Hill neighborhoods)
  • Ottawa
  • Point Place
  • Reynolds Corners
  • Scott Park

Culture

Fine art

Greek revival facade of the Monroe Street entrance, To Museum of Art

The Peristyle is the concert hall in Greek Revival style in the East Wing of the Toledo Museum of Art; it is the home of the Toledo Symphony Orchestra, and hosts many international orchestras as well. The Stranahan Theater is a major concert hall located on the city's south side. The Toledo Opera has been presenting grand opera in the city since 1959. Its current home is the historic Valentine Theatre Downtown. The Toledo Repertoire Theatre was created in 1933 and performs both Broadway hits and lesser-known original works. The Collingwood Arts Center is housed in a 1905 building designed by architect E. O. Fallis in the "Flemish Gothic" style. The parlor is used to showcase art exhibitions while the second and third floor rooms are rented to local artists. The Toledo Museum of Art is an internationally acclaimed museum located in a Greek Revival building. Its Center for Visual Arts addition by Frank Gehry was added recently and the Museum's new Glass Pavilion across Monroe Street opened in August 2006. Toledo was the first city in Ohio to adopt a one percent for arts program and, as such, boasts many examples of public, outdoor art. The works, which include large sculptures, environmental structures, and murals by more than 40 artists, such as Alice Adams, Pierre Clerk, Dale Eldred, Penelope Jencks, Hans Van De Bovenkamp, Jerry Peart, and Athena Tacha, are organized into a number of walking tours. The Ballet Theatre of Toledo provides an opportunity for area students to study ballet and perform their art.

Media

The eleven county Northwest Ohio/Toledo/Fremont media market includes over 1 million residents. The Blade, a daily newspaper, is the primary newspaper in Toledo and was founded in 1835. Page one of each issue asserts "One of America's Great Newspapers." The city's arts and entertainment weekly is the Toledo City Paper. In March 2005, the weekly newspaper Toledo Free Press began publication, and it has a focus on news and sports. Other weeklies include the West Toledo Herald, El Tiempo, La Prensa, Sojourner's Truth, Toledo Journal, and now Midwesturban Newspaper. Toledo Tales provides satire and parody of life in the Glass City. The Old West End Magazine is published monthly and highlights "The Best in Urban Historic Living". The Midwest Urban Newspaper and Toledo Journal are African-American owned newspapers. It is published weekly, and normally focuses on African-American issues. Monthly issues are also published on the Old West End Association website. There are eight television stations in Toledo. They are: 5 (Cable Only) WT05CW, 11 WTOLCBS, 13 WTVGABC, 24 WNWO-TVNBC, 30 WGTE-TVPBS, 36 WUPWFox, 40 WLMBFN, 58 (Cable Only) WMNT-CAMy Network TV and 22 WDTJ-LPTrinity Broadcast Network. There are also fourteen radio stations licensed in Toledo.

Notable residents

Toledo has produced a number of famous artists, including actors Jamie Farr, Alyson Stoner, Katie Holmes, Adrianne Palicki and Danny Thomas, musicians Tom Scholz, Lyfe Jennings, and Scott Shriner, painters Israel Abramofsky and James E. Brewton, jazz pianist Art Tatum. Famous writers and journalists from the city include P. J. O'Rourke, Christine Brennan, Philana Marie Boles, Mari Evans, Mildred D. Taylor, and Gloria Steinem. Famous athletes include Baseball Hall of Fame members Roger Bresnahan and Addie Joss, U.S. boxing Olympian Devin Vargas, 2012 Olympic silver medalist Erik Kynard (Track & Field, high jump), professional basketball player John Amaechi, retired NBA player Jim Jackson,and NBA Champions Chicago Bulls Dennis Hopson.

Toledo is the birthplace of "The Logistics King" Jeff Kummer. He was the innovator of the logistics revolution in the late 70's. Jeff was the director of world wide shipping and helped the FBI in the recovery of over 100 million dollars in stolen goods.

References in popular culture

John Denver sang a disparaging song about visiting Toledo titled "Saturday Night In Toledo, Ohio" which was composed by Randy Sparks. It was written in 1967 when Sparks and his group arrived in Toledo at 10 p.m. on a Saturday night, and found everything closed. Following a performance of the song on The Tonight Show, there was a large public outcry from Toledo residents. In response, the City Fathers recorded a song entitled "We're Strong For Toledo". Ultimately the controversy was such that John Denver cancelled a concert shortly thereafter, but when Denver returned for a 1980 concert, he set a one-show attendance record at the venue, Centennial Hall, and sang the song as well to the approval of the crowd.

Toledo is the hometown of Corporal Maxwell Klinger in the long-running 1970s television series M*A*S*H, an association that sprang from actor Jamie Farr being from there. Klinger makes frequent mention of Toledo during episodes of the series.

The Kenny Rogers 1977 hit song "Lucille" was written by Hal Bynum and inspired by his trip to Toledo in 1975.

Toledo is mentioned in the song "Our Song" by Yes from their 1983 album 90125. According to Yes drummer Alan White, Toledo was especially memorable for a sweltering-hot 1977 show the group did at Toledo Sports Arena.

Jack White (musician), of The White Stripes, is originally from Detroit and played many times in Toledo early in his career; the song "Expecting" contains the lyrics "You send me to Toledo".

In an episode of the 2000s series The Penguins of Madagascar, Marlene points out that a zoo inmate Skipper believes "disappeared under suspicious circumstances" was actually just transferred to Toledo.

Toledo is the setting for the 2010 television comedy Melissa & Joey, with the first-named character being a city councilwoman but few specific references to Toledo are planned.

"Toledo Girl" is the fifth track of actor Tim Robbins' 2010 debut album, Tim Robbins and the Rogues Gallery Band.

The song "Because of Toledo" appears on the 2004 album High by the Scottish band The Blue Nile.

The 2009 steampunk alternative history novel The Kingdom of Ohio by Matthew Flaming places its eponymous kingdom in Toledo, and one of the protagonists has the surname Toledo, being a scion of the royal family of the kingdom.

On the April 19, 2012 episode of Grey's Anatomy, titled "The Girl With No Name", Dr. Alex Karev goes to interview at a city in the middle of nowhere, and goes on to state that the city is Toledo.

Toledo is the birthplace of "The Logistics King" Jeff Kummer. He was the innovator of the logistics revolution in the late 70's. Jeff was the director of world wide shipping and helped the FBI in the recovery of over 100 million dollars in stolen goods.

Recreation

Toledo Zoo pedestrian bridge

Professional Sports

Looking onto Fifth Third Field
Huntington Center
  • Auto Racing- Toledo Speedway is a local auto racetrack that features, among other events, stock car racing and concerts.

Economy

One SeaGate, the tallest building in Toledo, is the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.
PNC Bank Building, formerly the Ohio Bank Building. Built in 1932, it is the 3rd tallest in Toledo.

Before the industrial revolution, Toledo was a port city on the Great Lakes. But with the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing, although these industries have declined considerably in recent decades. Both General Motors and Chrysler had factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk began operations early in the 20th century. Though the largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century, this honor has recently gone to the University of Toledo. Manufacturing as a whole now employs fewer Toledoans than does the healthcare industry, now the city's biggest employer. HCR Manor Care is an up and coming Fortune 1000 company headquartered in Toledo. The metro area is home to three Fortune 500 companies: Dana Corporation, Owens Corning and Owens Illinois. Formerly located at One SeaGate, O-I has recently relocated to suburban Perrysburg. One SeaGate is currently the location of Fifth-Third Bank's Northwest Ohio headquarters.

Glass Industry

Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, construction materials, and glass art, which the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Owens-Illinois, Owens Corning, Libbey Glass, Pilkington North America (formerly Libbey Owens Ford), and Therma-Tru have long been a staple of Toledo's economy. Other off-shoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy. Fiberglass giant Johns Manville's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey Owens Ford. Many other companies that service the glass industry also began in Toledo, such as Toledo Engineering and Glasstech.

Automotive Industry

Several large, Fortune 500 automotive related companies had their headquarters in Toledo. Electric AutoLite, Sheller-Globe Corporation, Champion Spark Plug, Questor, and Dana Corporation are examples of large auto parts companies that began in Toledo. Faurecia Exhaust Systems, which is a $2 billion subsidiary to France's Faurecia SA, is located in Toledo. Only Dana Corporation is still in existence as an independent entity. Toledo is home of Jeep headquarters and has 2 production facilities, one in the city and one in suburban Perrysburg. The manufacturing dependency continued into World War II when Toledo became involved in wartime production of several products, particularly the Willys Jeep. Willys-Overland was a major automaker headquartered in Toledo until 1953. In 2001, a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of tax incentives it extended to DaimlerChrysler for the expansion of its Jeep plant. The case was won by the city on a technical issue after it reached the U.S. Supreme Court in DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 547 U.S. ___ (2006).

Green Industry

While Toledo has a "rust belt" reputation due to its manufacturing history, in the 2000s, the city received a lot of interest and growth in "green jobs" due to economic development around solar energy. For example, the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University received Ohio grants for solar energy research. Also, companies like Xunlight and First Solar opened plants in Toledo and the surrounding area.

Education

Colleges and universities

These higher education institutions operate campuses in Metro Toledo:

Primary and secondary schools

Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo. Toledo is also home to several public charter schools including two Imagine Schools. Additionally, several private and parochial primary and secondary schools are present within the Toledo area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools. Private high schools in Toledo include Maumee Valley Country Day School, Central Catholic High School, St. Francis de Sales High School, St. John's Jesuit High School and Academy, Notre Dame Academy, St. Ursula Academy (Ottawa Hills), Cardinal Stritch High School (Oregon), the Toledo Islamic Academy, Freedom Christian Academy, Toledo Christian Schools, Emmanuel Christian, the David S. Stone Hebrew Academy (Sylvania), Monclova Christian Academy, and Apostolic Christian Academy.

Transportation

Major Highways

The Veterans' Glass City Skyway
The Anthony Wayne Bridge

There are three major highway interstates that run through Toledo. Interstate 75 (I-75) travels north-south and provides a direct route to Detroit and Cincinnati. The Ohio Turnpike carries east-west traffic on Interstate 80 and Interstate 90. The Turnpike is connected to Toledo via exits 52, 59, 64, 71, and 81. The Turnpike connects Toledo to South Bend and Chicago to the West and Cleveland to the East. In addition, there are two minor highway interstates in the area. Interstate 475 is a loop that both begins and ends on I-75 in Perrysburg and West Toledo, respectively. Interstate 280 is a spur that travels mostly through east Toledo. This highway travels over the newly constructed Veterans' Glass City Skyway which was most expensive ODOT project ever at its completion. This 400-foot (120 m) tall bridge includes a glass covered pylon, which lights up at night, adding a distinctive feature to Toledo's skyline. The Anthony Wayne Bridge, a 3,215-foot (980 m) suspension bridge crossing the Maumee River, has been a staple of Toledo's skyline for more than 70 years. It is locally known as the "High-Level Bridge."

Mass Transit

Local bus service is provided by the Toledo Area Regional Transit Authority; commonly shortened to TARTA. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines whose station is located at 811 Jefferson Ave. in Downtown Toledo. Megabus also provides daily trips to Ann Arbor, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh.

Airports

Toledo Express Airport, located in the suburbs of Monclova and Swanton Townships, is the primary airport that serves the city. Additionally, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport is 45 miles north. Toledo Executive Airport (formerly Metcalf Field) is a general aviation airport southeast of Toledo near the I-280 and Ohio SR 795 interchange. Toledo Suburban Airport is another general aviation airport located in Lambertville, MI just north of the state border.

Rail transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Toledo under the Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited. Both lines stop at Martin Luther King, Jr. Plaza which was built as Central Union Terminal by the New York Central Railroad—along its Water Level Route—in 1950. At one time, Toledo had several trollies that ran downtown and to other nearby towns but these are no longer in existence. Freight rail service in Toledo is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transportation, Canadian National Railway, Ann Arbor Railroad, and Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway. All except the Wheeling have local terminals; the Wheeling operates into Toledo from the east through trackage rights on Norfolk Southern to connect with the Ann Arbor and the CN. Of the seven Ohio stations served by Amtrak, Toledo was the busiest in FY2010, boarding or detraining an average of approximately 180 passengers daily.

See also

External links

ABOUT MONROE MICHIGAN
HOMECARE, RESPITE, ALZHEIMER'S, DEMENTIA, COMPANION SERVICES
Monroe, Michigan
—  City  —
Monroe’s historic downtown on South Monroe Street
Location in Monroe County and the state of Michigan
 
Country United States
State Michigan
County Monroe
Platted 1817
Incorporated 1837
Government
 • Mayor Robert Clark
Area
 • City 10.1 sq mi (26.1 km2)
 • Land 9 sq mi (23.4 km2)
 • Water 1 sq mi (2.7 km2)
Elevation 594 ft (182 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 20,733
 • Density 2,303.7/sq mi (886.0/km2)
 • Urban 53,153
 • Metro 152,021
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 48161, 48162
Area code(s) 734
FIPS code 26-55020
GNIS feature ID 0632572
Website http://www.ci.monroe.mi.us/

Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 20,733 at the 2010 census. It is the largest city and county seat of Monroe County. The city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township, but both are politically independent. The city is located approximately 14 miles (23 km) north of Toledo, Ohio and 25 miles (40 km) south of Detroit. The United States Census Bureau lists Monroe as the core city in the Monroe Metropolitan Area, which had a population of 152,021 in 2010. Monroe itself is officially part of the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint CSA, and Monroe is also sometimes unofficially included as a northerly extension of the Toledo Metropolitan Area.

Settled as early as 1784, Monroe was platted in 1817 and was named after then-President James Monroe. Today, the city has a strong sense of historic preservationism and is remembered for the Battle of Frenchtown during the War of 1812, as well as being the childhood residence of George Armstrong Custer and other members of his family, including his wife Elizabeth Bacon and brother Boston Custer. The city has numerous historic museums and landmarks. Monroe is also recognized as the home of the La-Z-Boy world headquarters.

History

The area was settled by Indian tribes (specifically the Potawatomi) hundreds of years before the French reached the area for the first time in the late seventeenth-century. Robert de LaSalle claimed the area for New France after his 1679 expedition on the Griffon. In 1784, Francis Navarre was given a portion of land south of the River Raisin by the Potawatomi. Frenchtown was settled shortly thereafter as the third European settlement in the state. Around the same time, the Sandy Creek Settlement was established just north of Frenchtown by Joseph Porlier Benec.

Front Street 2010
Front Street 1900
Front Street looking east toward the Old Village around the year 1900 (top) and in 2010 (bottom)

The area, because of its close location to Detroit, was of strategic importance during the War of 1812, especially after Detroit fell to the enemy British during the Siege of Detroit in August 1812. The area of Frenchtown served as a stepping stone for the American forces to retake Detroit, and this led to the devastating Battle of Frenchtown in January 1813. The American forces camped in the area in an attempt to move to retake Detroit when they met British and Indian opposition near the shores of the River Raisin on January 18. Initially, the Americans, under the command of James Winchester, fought off the British and Indians in what was later dubbed the First Battle of the River Raisin. However, four days later, the Americans were counterattacked in the same location. Many of the Americans were injured from the previous battle, and their escape routes were cut off. The British, under Henry Proctor, and their Indian allies slaughtered almost 400 American soldiers in what would later be known as the Battle of Frenchtown (or the Second Battle of the River Raisin). The surviving Americans who were unable to retreat became prisoners of war, but some were later slaughtered by Indian forces in an incident dubbed the River Raisin massacre. Today, the site of the battle houses a small visitor center and the recently authorized River Raisin National Battlefield Park.

Custer’s statue, unveiled in 1910, now sits at the corner of Elm Street and Monroe Street.

The area of Frenchtown was renamed and incorporated as the village of Monroe in honor of President James Monroe, who visited the Michigan Territory in 1817. In the same year, the city of Monroe was named the county seat of the newly-created Monroe County. Monroe re-incorporated as a city in 1837. Monroe is known for the residency of United States Major General George Armstrong Custer (1839–1876) during his childhood. While he was not born in Monroe, Custer spent much of his boyhood living in Monroe, where he later met and married Elizabeth Bacon (1842–1933) during the Civil War in 1864. In 1910, President William Howard Taft and the widowed Elizabeth Bacon unveiled an equestrian statue of Custer (George Armstrong Custer Equestrian Monument) that now rests at the corner of Elm Street and Monroe Street. Custer’s namesake is honored as street names, various historic markers, buildings, schools, and the Custer Airport. City limit signs for Monroe also mention the city as "the home of General Custer." The city is also known as the home of La-Z-Boy, which was founded in Monroe in 1927. Their world headquarters are located in Monroe on Telegraph Road. In 1974, the Monroe Power Plant, currently the fourth largest coal firing plant in North America, opened. At 805 feet (245 m) tall, the dual smokestacks are the visible from over 25 miles (40 km) away and are among the tallest structures in the state.

Demographics

In the census of 2000, there were 22,076 people, 8,594 households, and 5,586 families in the city. The population density was 2,440.9 per square mile (942.9/km²). There were 9,107 housing units at an average density of 1,007.0 per square mile (389.0/km²). The racial makeup was 90.87% White, 5.07% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, and 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.76% of the population.

There were 8,594 households of which 33.6% had children under 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.0% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone 65 years or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size 3.10.

In the city the population was 26.9% under 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who 65 or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,810, and the median income for a family $51,442. Males had a median income of $42,881 versus $25,816 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,948. 9.0% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under 18 and 16.1% of those 65 or over.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2), of which 9.0 square miles (23 km2) of it is land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2) of it (10.14%) is water. Monroe sits at the lowest elevation in state of Michigan, which is the shores of Lake Erie at 571 feet (174 meters). The average elevation of the city of Monroe is 594 feet (182 meters). The Port of Monroe is the only Michigan port on Lake Erie, and Sterling State Park is the only of Michigan's 98 state parks located on or near Lake Erie. The River Raisin and Sandy Creek travel through Monroe, although these waterways are unnavigable.

Climate

Monroe lies in the humid continental climate zone. Monroe only receives an average of 28.5 inches (72.4 cm) of snow a year — the lowest average snowfall for any large city in the state. July is the warmest month with an average high temperature of 84 °F (29 °C), and January is the coldest month with an average low temperature of 16 °F (-9 °C). Monroe does not normally have extremely hot or cold temperatures. On average, the temperature only drops below 0 °F (-18 °C) a couple of times during a winter season, and it is even rarer for the temperature to rise above 100 °F (38 °C) during the summer. The coldest recorded temperature was -21 °F (-29 °C) on February 5, 1918. The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on July 24, 1934, with another equal temperature recorded on one occasion many years earlier.

Climate data for Monroe, Michigan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
70
(21)
83
(28)
90
(32)
95
(35)
106
(41)
106
(41)
103
(39)
103
(39)
92
(33)
81
(27)
68
(20)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 31
(-1)
33
(1)
43
(6)
57
(14)
69
(21)
80
(27)
84
(29)
82
(28)
75
(24)
62
(17)
48
(9)
36
(2)
58
(14)
Average low °F (°C) 16
(-9)
18
(-8)
27
(-3)
38
(3)
49
(9)
59
(15)
64
(18)
62
(17)
55
(13)
43
(6)
33
(1)
22
(-6)
40
(4)
Record low °F (°C) -18
(-28)
-21
(-29)
-2
(-19)
11
(-12)
26
(-3)
35
(2)
35
(2)
38
(3)
27
(-3)
21
(-6)
1
(-17)
-12
(-24)
-21
(-29)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.6
(41)
1.7
(43)
2.6
(66)
3.0
(76)
3.1
(79)
3.5
(89)
3.1
(79)
3.2
(81)
3.0
(76)
2.3
(58)
2.8
(71)
2.8
(71)
32.7
(831)
Snowfall inches (cm) 7.4
(18.8)
6.2
(15.7)
5.3
(13.5)
0.9
(2.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2.2
(5.6)
6.0
(15.2)
28
(71)
Source:

Education

The Hall of the Divine Child, now the Norman Towers senior citizens residence, was a boarding school in Monroe from 1918–1980.

The city of Monroe is served by only one large public school district, Monroe Public Schools (MPS), which enrolls approximately 6,700 students. MPS operates nine elementary schools, one middle school, one high school, one alternative high school, and two specialized education centers. At around 2,100 students, Monroe High School is one of the largest high schools in the state. Monroe is also served by the Monroe County Intermediate School District, which provides services to other schools in the form of special education services, support staff, substitute teachers, and educational technology (such as computers and distance learning). Students in Monroe may also attend one of two public charter schools, and there are also over a dozen various parochial schools in and around Monroe. The largest of these schools is St. Mary Catholic Central High School, which enrolls over 400 students a year and has a full sports program that competes against the other public school districts. Students may also be homeschooled.

Marygrove College, sponsored by the local Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (IHM), was founded in Monroe in 1905 as a Catholic, liberal arts college. The college then moved to its current location in Detroit in 1927. The IHM also operated a boarding school, the Hall of the Divine Child, in Monroe from 1918–1980. Monroe County Community College was founded in 1964 just west of Monroe. It is the only higher education school in Monroe County.


Economy

Top employers

According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Mercy Memorial Hospital 1,600
2 County of Monroe 1,062
3 DTE Energy 530
4 La-Z-Boy 522
5 Macsteel 450
6 Monroe Bank & Trust 401
7 Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary 265
8 City of Monroe 205
9 Monroe Publishing Company 200
10 SYGMA Network 162

Transportation

Lake Erie Transit logo.png

The city of Monroe is served by the Lake Erie Transit public transportation bus system. Established in 1975, Lake Erie Transit currently has a fleet of 31 buses and serves approximately 400,000 riders every year. In 2008, the system logged 764,000 miles. The system operates buses on eight fixed routes in and around the city of Monroe. It also serves several neighboring townships outside of its normal routes should a passenger call ahead for a ride. From Bedford Township, its provides transportation to and from two shopping malls in Toledo, Ohio.

  • I-75 travels through Monroe and provides access to Toledo and Detroit. There are five interchanges in and near Monroe: LaPlaisance Road (exit 11), Front Street (exit 13), Elm Street (exit 14), North Dixie Highway (exit 15), and Nadeau Road (exit 18).
  • I-275 has its southern terminus just north of Monroe. Splitting off from I-75, I-275 is a western bypass around Detroit but does not actually merge back with I-75. Aside from I-75, the highway can be accessed near Monroe by US 24 (Telegraph Road) via exit 2.
  • M-50 terminates in Monroe at US 24 and provides a direct route to Dundee, Jackson, and further. In Monroe, M-50 is known locally as South Custer Road. Its former terminus used to be I-75 at exit 15.
  • US 24 travels through Monroe and provides access to Toledo and western portions of Detroit. The road is known locally as North Telegraph and South Telegraph — divided at the River Raisin. US 24 also connects to I-275 just north of Monroe.
  • M-125 travels directly through the downtown area before merging into US 24 north of Monroe. South of downtown after Jones Avenue, it is called South Dixie Highway. In the downtown area, it is South Monroe Street. North of the River Raisin, it is North Monroe Street.
  • M-130 was a state highway existing from 1930 until 1955 and ran along the northern banks of the River Raisin. M-130 had its eastern terminus at US 24 and ran for just over nine miles (14 km). In 1955, control of the highway was transferred back to the county. Today, it is called North Custer Road.
  • Dixie Highway ran through Monroe in as early as 1915. It was originally one of the few ways to reach places like Florida, but the highway was largely replaced by I-75 beginning in the 1960s. Today, the namesake of the highway is used for two non-connecting highways (one being M-125), although the same route and remnants of the original highway are long gone.
  • US 25 was the designated name for the portion of Dixie Highway north of Cincinnati, including the portion running through Monroe. Like Dixie Highway, US 25 was largely replaced, and the existing highway was truncated at Cincinnati.
  • Custer Airport was built in 1946 and is located on the former M-130. It is a very small and seldom used airport. There are no commercial or passenger flights departing from or arriving at Custer Airport. There is one paved runway used by small personal airplanes. There is also a small aviation school on the site. All air services in the area are primarily through the Metro Airport in Wayne County.

Notable natives and residents

External links

 

 

 

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